Tooth wear is a complex, pluri-factorial process that must be taken into account in clinical practice. The main mechanisms typically related to dental wear are: abrasion, attrition, erosion and wear by fatigue. The dramatic increase in the frequency of erosive lesions, especially in younger age groups determined us to give a synthesis of the most recent scientific literature on the specific problem of erosion. Attention is drawn to the excessive consumption of acidic beverages in children and teenagers, erosion and destruction associated with gastro esophageal reflux, psychiatric disorders of bulimia and anorexia. From the study of 58 articles we have detailed the principles of diagnosis, the prevalence associated with age and finally the main etiological factors. The definition of specific population groups with intrinsic or extrinsic risk factors for dental erosion will help generate preventive approaches and will open the way for the development of new treatment protocols.